The oldest English-language Primatology journal
Cover Photo: © Anup Shah & Fiona Rogers
Since 1957


Primates is the oldest English-language Primatology journal, published by the Japan Monkey Centre (JMC) through Springer in collaboration with Primate Society Japan. The object of this journal is to facilitate the research on the entire aspect of nonhuman primates in connection with man. Museum section of JMC is taking on the role of delegating editorial board members/advisory board members/editor-in-chief, hosting editorial board meeting, and editorial operation of the journal PRIMATES.

Featured Articles

Hand Picked by Media and Information Section

Hirata S, Hirai H, Nogami E, Morimura N, Udono T (2017) Chimpanzee Down syndrome: a case study of trisomy 22 in a captive chimpanzee. Primates doi: 10.1007/s10329-017-0597-8.

Researchers document second case of “Down syndrome” in chimps

Kawakami F, Tomonaga M, Suzuki J (2016) The first smile: spontaneous smiles in newborn Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) Primates doi: 10.1007/s10329-016-0558-7.

Smiling baby monkeys and the roots of laughter

Photo © Masaki Tomonaga

Sakuraba Y, Tomonaga M, Hayashi M (2016) A new method of walking rehabilitation using cognitive tasks in an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) with a disability: a case study. Primates Volume 57, Issue 3, pp 403-412.
doi: 10.1007/s10329-016-0541-3.

The story of how a touch screen helped a paralyzed chimp walk again.
Euthanasia does not have to be only option for injured animals

Matsumoto T, Itoh N, Inoue S, Nakamura M. (2016) An observation of a severely disabled infant chimpanzee in the wild and her interactions with her mother. Primates Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 3-7. doi: 10.1007/s10329-015-0499-6

Wild chimpanzee mother cares for disabled child.
Over 23 months in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania, a research team from Kyoto University observed how a female chimpanzee cared for her disabled infant. This was the first time that such an infant was observed in the wild, and also the first report of a disabled infant surviving for nearly two years.

Photo © Royal Burger's Zoo

Van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. & Lukkenaar, B. (2015). Captive chimpanzee takes down a drone: tool use toward a flying object, Primates Volume 56, Issue 4, pp 289-292. doi: 10.1007/s10329-015-0482-2.

Chimp vs. Drone
Not on my watch: Chimp swats film crew’s drone
Incident shows that chimps are able to plan ahead and use tools as weapons

From the Editors of Primates

Do you know which articles published by primatology journals in the past 1 year have gained the most attention online? Here are the winners as scored by Altmetric: #1 Van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. & Lukkenaar, B. (2015); #2 Kawakami et al. (2016); and #3 Sakuraba Y et al. (2016). Additionally, of the top ten scoring articles in primatology journals on Altmetric, 7 were published in Primates. Now you must be left in no doubt as to how to get the most attention for your next publication! Visit the Primates site at and see our Instructions for Authors.

August 25, 2016
We held a small gathering of Primates Editors at Navy Pier, the venue of the 2016 joint IPS ASP congress, in Chicago, August 21 - 27, 2016. During this dinner, we received many inspiring suggestions of how best to promote our journal Primates. Many thanks to all the participants for sharing their time and expertise. See you next time!

Most-Cited Paper Award

July 15-17, 2016. Photos: Goro Hanya (left) and Yamato Tsuji (right), receiving the award from Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Editor-in-Chief.
Title: The effect of urban and rural habitats and resource type on activity budgets of commensal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.
Authors: M. Firoj Jaman and Michael A. Huffman
Issue: January 2013, Volume 54 (1) pp 49-59
DOI: 10.1007/s10329-012-0330-6
Title: Fruiting and flushing phenology in Asian tropical and temperate forests: implications for primate ecology.
Authors: Goro Hanya, Yamato Tsuji and Cyril C. Grueter
Issue: April 2013, Volume 54 (2) pp 101-110
DOI: 10.1007/s10329-012-0341-3

Title: Cathemerality in wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) in the spiny forest of Tsimanampetsotsa National Park: camera trap data and preliminary behavioral observations.
Aurhors: Marni LaFleur, Michelle Sauther, Frank Cuozzo, Nayuta Yamashita, Ibrahim Antho Jacky Youssouf, and Richard Bender
Issue: April 2014, Volume 55 (2) pp 207-217
DOI: 10.1007/s10329-013-0391-1

Title: Fruiting and flushing phenology in Asian tropical and temperate forests: implications for primate ecology.
Authors: Goro Hanya, Yamato Tsuji and Cyril C. Grueter
Issue: April 2013, Volume 54 (2) pp 101-110
DOI: 10.1007/s10329-012-0341-3

Title: Dietary adaptations of temperate primates: comparisons of Japanese and Barbary macaques.
Authors: Goro Hanya, Nelly Me'nard, Mohamed Qarro, Mohamed Ibn Tattou, Mieko Fuse, Dominique Vallet, Aya Yamada, Moe Go, Hino Takafumi, Riyou Tsujino, Naoki Agetsuma, and Kazuo Wada
Issue: April 2011, Volume 52 (2) pp 187-198
DOI: 10.1007/s10329-011-0239-5

Title: Host age, sex, and reproductive seasonality affect nematode parasitism in wild Japanese macaques.
Authors: Andrew J. J. MacIntosh, Alexander D. Hernandez and Michael A. Huffman
Issue: October 2010, Volume 51 (4) pp 353-364
DOI: 10.1007/s10329-010-0211-9

Title: A social network analysis of primate groups.
Authors: Claudia Kasper and Bernhard Voelkl
Issue: October 2009, Volume 50 (4) pp 343-356
DOI: 10.1007/s10329-009-0153-2

Title: Within-species differences in primate social structure: evolution of plasticity and phylogenetic constraints.
Authors: Colin A. Chapman and Jessica M. Rothman
Issue: January 2009, Volume 50 (1) pp12-22
DOI: 10.1007/s10329-008-0123-0

Title: Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) learn to act with other individuals in a cooperative task.
Authors: Satoshi Hirata and Kohki Fuwa
Issue: January 2007, Volume 48 (1) pp 13-21
DOI: 10.1007/s10329-006-0022-1

Title: Counting primates for conservation: primate surveys in Uganda.
Authors: Andrew J. Plumptre and Debby Cox
Issue: January 2006, Volume 47 (1) pp 65-73
DOI: 10.1007/s10329-005-0146-8

Title: Group size in folivorous primates: ecological constraints and the possible in?uence of social factors.
Authors: Colin A. Chapman and Mary S. M. Pavelka
Issue:January 2005 Vol. 46 (1) pp1-9
DOI: 10.1007/s10329-004-0093-9

Title: Reconciliation and post-conflict third-party affiliation among wild chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania .
Authors: Nobuyuki Kutsukake and Duncan L. Castles
Issue: July 2004, Vol. 45 (3) pp 157-165
DOI: 10.1007/s10329-004-0082-z
Afterword of Volume 1, Issue 1 of Primates, October 25, 1957

Currently, there is no journal specializing in primatology; I declare that this is the very first primatology journal. Isn't this exciting? First of all, primatology department is non-existent in any university of the world, and therefore there is nothing such as an academic society for primatology. The modification in the operation of academic authority is evidenced by the fact that the Japan Monkey Centre (JMC) introduced the publication of this specialized journal, skipping the normal course of development, which is to begin by establishing a department at a university, followed by organizing an academic society, and then publishing a journal. The term "primatology" can be translated as "reichourui-gaku" in Japanese. But, we do not prefer such a difficult, orotund name. The primatology that we envision is a new scholarly endeavor to comprehensively investigate, so to speak, the genealogical history of humankind, by comparatively studying primates situated in various phylogenetic statuses, from various academic fields from the perspectives of not only morphology and development, but also physiology, psychology, ecology, sociology, and so forth.

It is from this standpoint that we conceived, an idea of gathering various primate species from around the world in a zoo that is expected to be built under the supervision of the JMC; we do not recklessly expand our research focus to include animals that do not share recent common genealogy with humankind. In this first volume, only articles that are based on naturalistic observations of Japanese monkeys could be included, but this journal seeks to gradually fulfill all the aforementioned ambitions. On the other hand, I request contributions from outside the country and promotion of the journal, until it achieves global recognition. I might have made too many irresponsible remarks, but I just want things to proceed in a lively manner, anticipating a bright future for us. Therefore, I sincerely ask your support and cooperation.

Kinji Imanishi

Message from Editor-in-Cheif, Primates
Dr. Tetsuro Matsuzawa

Cover Photo
The new cover of Primates features an infant male chimpanzee named Flanle wearing a leaf hat. Photo taken by Anup Shah and Fiona Rogers in Bossou, Guinea. Flanle was born September 14, 2007, and the episode occurred at the age of 3 years and 3 months. The hat was made from palm leaves and was used by local people as a cushion for the head when carrying heavy objects. It was discarded by a villager who had carried a heavy oil-palm bunch. No adult chimpanzees paid attention to the discarded leaf hat, but the infant chimpanzee found it and put it on his head immediately. This is an example of delayed imitation of human behavior by a chimpanzee.

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